Programming languages have come a long way since the original COBOL compiler. With each new programming language comes the promise of faster learning and more maintainable code. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) such as Windows environments and the Internet have dramatically changed the way languages are used and have forced the entry of almost as many new languages in the past few years as were created in the first 35 years of computing. This chapter focuses on newer languages.

The highlights of this chapter include the following:

  • Pascal opened the door for more modern languages.

  • C is a very efficient programming language that set the stage for several more languages.

  • The online world brings new challenges ...

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