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1 The concept of point charges assumes that the charge is located at a singular point in space.
2 This is true for the electrostatic case that we are discussing here. We will see later that there can be closed electric field lines under time-varying conditions.
3 The gradient operator can be written using the Nabla operator (grad ϕ = ∇ϕ). Both forms are common .
4 Unfortunately the term polarization is also used in the context of plane waves and antennas with a completely different meaning. We will discuss plane waves in Section 2.5.1.
5 This equation is only valid for a current that is constant in time and a current density distribution that is homogeneous over the cross-section area. If we consider time-varying fields the so called skin effect ...