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MPLS Fundamentals by Luc De Ghein - CCIE No. 1897

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Chapter 3

1. What does the push operation do on a labeled packet?
A1: Answer: The push operation replaces the top label with another and then pushes one or more labels onto the label stack.
2. Which Cisco IOS command do you use to see what the swapped label is and which labels are pushed onto a received packet for a certain prefix?
A2: Answer: show mpls forwarding-table [network {mask | length}] [detail]
3. What does the outgoing label entry of “Aggregate” in the LFIB of a Cisco IOS LSR mean?
A3: Answer: The outgoing label entry “Aggregate” means that the LSR removes the label and does an IP lookup to be able to determine where the packet needs to be forwarded.
4. What label value signals the penultimate LSR to use penultimate hop popping ...

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