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MPLS Fundamentals by Luc De Ghein - CCIE No. 1897

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Pre-MPLS Protocols

Before MPLS, the most popular WAN protocols were ATM and Frame Relay. Cost-effective WAN networks were built to carry various protocols. With the popularity of the Internet, IP became the most popular protocol. IP was everywhere. VPNs were created over these WAN protocols. Customers leased ATM links and Frame Relay links or used leased lines and built their own private network over it. Because the routers of the provider supplied a Layer 2 service toward the Layer 3 customer routers, the separation and isolation between different customer networks were guaranteed. These kinds of networks are referred to as overlay networks.

Overlay networks are still used today, but many customers are now using the MPLS VPN service. The next ...

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