As with AToM, all CE routers see each other as directly connected across the MPLS network at Layer 3. The advantage for the service provider is that he does not have to worry about Layer 3 routing protocols because no peering (no routing peering) takes place between the PE and the CE equipment at Layer 3 as it does with MPLS VPN. This is clearly an advantage of VPLS over MPLS VPN. The advantage of VPLS over EoMPLS for the customer is that the routing peering between CE routers happens simply over an (emulated) LAN and not over a full mesh of point-to-point circuits. This simplifies the configuration on the CE equipment considerably and makes certain migrations a lot easier to perform when necessary.