1.3 Bulk Crystal Growth

The progress of solid state device technology since the invention of the transistor in 1948 has depended not only on the development of device concepts but also on the improvement of materials. For example, the fact that ICs can be made today is the result of a considerable breakthrough in the growth of pure, single-​crystal Si in the early and mid-​1950s. The requirements on the growing of device-​grade semiconductor crystals are more stringent than those for any other materials. Not only must semiconductors be available in large single crystals, but also the purity must be controlled within extremely close limits. For example, Si crystals now being used in devices are grown with concentrations of most impurities of ...

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