APPENDIX C: THE CARKHUFF HELPING MODEL Research Background

Helping Outcomes

Historically, Eysenck (1960) and others (Levitt, 1963; Lewis, 1965) confronted the helping professions with the challenge that counseling and psychotherapy really did not make a difference. About two-thirds of the patients remained out of the hospital a year after treatment, whether or not they were seen by professional psychotherapists. These effects held for adult and child treatment.

One answer to this challenge was the finding that the variability, or range of effects, of the professionally treated groups on a variety of psychological indices was significantly greater than the variability of the “untreated” groups (Rogers, Gendlen, Kiesler, & Truax, 1967; Truax & ...

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