Changes the access mode of a file

chmod [options] who operation permission file-list (symbolic)

chmod [options] mode file-list (absolute)

chmod [options] --reference=rfile file-list (referential)

The chmod utility changes the ways in which a file can be accessed by the owner of the file, the group to which the file belongs, and/or all other users. Only the owner of a file or Superuser can change the access mode, or permissions, of a file. You can specify the new access mode absolutely, symbolically, or referentially.


Arguments specify which files are to have their modes changed in what ways.


The chmod utility changes the access permission for the class of user specified by who. The class of user is designated by one ...

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