The preceding chapter discussed scalar multiplication with vectors. Remember, a vector is just a single row or single-column matrix, so scalar multiplication works the same way with matrices as it does with vectors. In fact, the preceding section had an example of scalar multiplication in the discussion of subtraction. At one point, there was a suggestion that rather than subtracting corresponding entries, you might want to add the negative of the second matrix. Flipping the sign of each entry is the same as multiplying the matrix by –1.
for any scalar value c and any size matrix A.
Just like flipping ...