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Operating Systems: Concurrent and Distributed Software Design by Tim Harris, Jean Bacon

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A.2. Operating systems and distributed operating systems

The earliest computer systems had no operating systems. Programmers would book time on the computer or queue to use it. They would then read in their decks of cards or paper tapes and perhaps single-shot through the part of the program being debugged while watching the effect on the console display. The potential of computers for the business world was soon realized and the need for streamlining program execution became apparent.

One-at-a-time batch

During the 1960s computers were expensive and were located in air-conditioned machine rooms. The first operating systems were designed to run one program at once and the human was removed from the input process. The term SPOOL (simultaneous ...

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