## O-Notation

*O* -notation is the most common notation used to express an
algorithm’s performance in a formal manner. Formally,
*O* -notation expresses the upper bound of a
function within a constant factor. Specifically, if
*g* (*n*) is an upper bound of
*f* (*n*), then for some
constant *c* it is possible to find a value of
*n*, call it *n*
_{0}, for which any value of
*n* ≥ *n*
_{0} will result in *f*
(*n*) ≤ *cg
*(*n*).

Normally we express an algorithm’s performance as a
function of the size of the data it processes. That is, for some data
of size *n*, we describe its performance with some
function *f* (*n*). However,
while in many cases we can determine *f* exactly,
usually it is not necessary to be this precise. Primarily we are
interested only in the *growth rate* of
*f*, which describes how quickly the algorithm’s
performance will degrade as the size of the data it processes becomes
arbitrarily large. An algorithm’s growth rate, or *order of
growth*, is significant because ultimately it describes how
*efficient* the algorithm is for arbitrary inputs.
*O* -notation reflects an algorithm’s order of
growth.

### Simple Rules for *O*-Notation

When we look at some function *f*
(*n*) in terms of its growth rate, a few things
become apparent. First, we can ignore constant terms because as the
value of *n* becomes larger and larger,
eventually constant terms will become insignificant. For example, if
*T* (*n*) = *n
*+ 50 describes the running time of an algorithm, and
*n*, the size of the data it processes, is only
1024, the constant term in this expression already constitutes less
than 5% of the running time. Second, we can ignore constant
multipliers of terms because they too will become insignificant as
the value of *n* increases. For example, if
*T*
_{1}(*n*) =*
n* ^{2} and *T*
_{2}(*n*) =
10*n* describe the running times of two
algorithms for solving the same problem, *n* only
has to be greater than 10 for *T*
_{1} to become greater than
*T* _{2}. Finally, we need
only consider the highest-order term because, again, as
*n* increases, higher-order terms quickly
outweigh the lower-order ones. For example, if
*T* (*n*) =
*n* ^{2} +
*n* describes the running time of an algorithm,
and *n* is 1024, the lesser-order term of this
expression constitutes less than 0.1% of the running time. These
ideas are formalized in the following simple rules for expressing
functions in *O* -notation.

Constant terms are expressed as

*O*(1). When analyzing the running time of an algorithm, apply this rule when you have a task that you know will execute in a certain amount of time regardless of the size of the data it processes. Formally stated, for some constant*c*:*O(c*) =*O*(1)Multiplicative constants are omitted. When analyzing the running time of an algorithm, apply this rule when you have a number of tasks that all execute in the same amount of time. For example, if three tasks each run in time

*T*(*n*) =*n*, the result is*O*(3*n*), which simplifies to*O*(*n*). Formally stated, for some constant*c*:*O(cT) = cO(T) = O(T)*Addition is performed by taking the maximum. When analyzing the running time of an algorithm, apply this rule when one task is executed after another. For example, if

*T*_{1}(*n*) =*n*and*T*_{2}(*n*) =*n*^{2}describe two tasks executed sequentially, the result is*O*(*n*) +*O*(*n*^{2}), which simplifies to*O*(*n*^{2}). Formally stated:*O(T*_{1})+*O(T*_{1}+*T*_{2}) = max (*O(T*_{1}),*O(T*_{2}))Multiplication is not changed but often is rewritten more compactly. When analyzing the running time of an algorithm, apply this rule when one task causes another to be executed some number of times for each iteration of itself. For example, in a nested loop whose outer iterations are described by

*T*_{1}and whose inner iterations by*T*_{2}, if*T*_{1}(*n*) =*n*and*T*_{2}(*n*) =*n*, the result is*O*(*n*)*O*(*n*), or*O*(*n*^{2}). Formally stated:*O(T*_{1})*O(T*_{2}) =*O(T*_{1}*T*_{2})

*O*-Notation Example and Why It
Works

The next section discusses how these rules help us in
predicting an algorithm’s performance. For now, let’s look at a
specific example demonstrating why they work so well in describing a
function’s growth rate. Suppose we have an algorithm whose running
time is described by the function *T*
(*n*) = 3*n*
^{2} + 10*n* + 10. Using
the rules of *O* -notation, this function can be
simplified to:

*O(T(n))* =
*O*(3*n*
^{2} + 10*n* + 10) =
*O*(3*n*
^{2}) = *O(n*
^{2})

This indicates that the term containing *n*
^{2} will be the one that accounts for most
of the running time as *n* grows arbitrarily
large. We can verify this quantitatively by computing the percentage
of the overall running time that each term accounts for as
*n* increases. For example, when
*n* = 10, we have the following:

Running time for 3n
^{2}:
3(10)^{2}/(3(10)^{2}
+ 10(10) + 10) = 73.2% |

Running time for 10n:
10(10)/(3(10)^{2} + 10(10) + 10) =
24.4% |

Running time for 10: 10/(3(10)^{2}
+ 10(10) + 10) = 2.4% |

Already we see that the *n*
^{2} term accounts for the majority of the
overall running time. Now consider when *n* =
100:

Running time for 3n
^{2}:
3(100)^{2}/(3(100)^{2}
+ 10(100) + 10) = 96.7% (Higher) |

Running time for 10n:
10(100)/(3(100)^{2} + 10(100) + 10) = 3.2%
(Lower) |

Running time for 10:
10/(3(100)^{2} + 10(100) + 10) < 0.1%
(Lower) |

Here we see that this term accounts for *almost
all* of the running time, while the significance of the
other terms diminishes further. Imagine how much of the running time
this term would account for if *n* were
10^{6}!

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