Conventions Used in This Book

Items appearing in the book are sometimes given a special appearance to set them apart from the regular text. Here’s how they look:

Italic

Indicates new terms, URLs, email addresses, filenames, file extensions, pathnames, and directories.

Constant width

Indicates commands, options, switches, variables, attributes, keys, functions, types, classes, namespaces, methods, modules, properties, parameters, values, objects, events, event handlers, XML tags, HTML tags, macros, the contents of files, or the output from commands.

Constant width bold

Shows commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user.

Constant width italic

Shows text that should be replaced with user-supplied values.

Tip

This icon signifies a tip, suggestion, or general note.

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