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The Psychology Book by

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RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Learning theory

BEFORE

1890s Ivan Pavlov shows “classical conditioning” in dogs.

1890s Edward Thorndike designs the “puzzle box” for his experiments on cats.

1920s Edward Tolman queries the role of reinforcement in conditioning.

AFTER

1938 B.F. Skinner’s The Behavior of Organisms presents the idea of operant conditioning, emphasizing the role of consequences in behavior.

1940s Jean Piaget develops a theory of learning that claims children are naturally driven to explore and acquire knowledge.

1977 Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory states that behavior is learned from observing and copying the behavior of others.

By the 1920s, when ...

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