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The Psychology Book by

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RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Psychoanalysis

BEFORE

1920 Sigmund Freud first uses the concepts of the ego, id, and superego in his essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle.

AFTER

1950s Melanie Klein disagrees that actual parental influence is involved in the formation of the superego.

1961 Eric Berne presents the idea that we retain child, adult, and parental ego states throughout our lives, and says that these can be explored through analysis.

1976 American psychologist Jane Loevinger says that the ego develops in stages throughout a person’s life, as a result of an interaction between the inner self and the outer environment.

According to the Bible, Adam and Eve in ...

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