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The Psychology Book by

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RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Psychoanalysis

BEFORE

1889 In L’Automatism Psychologique, Pierre Janet describes “splitting,” where a personality branches into distinct, separate parts.

AFTER

1950s Melanie Klein says that people split off parts of their personalities to cope with otherwise unmanageable, conflicting feelings.

1970s Austrian psychoanalyst Heinz Kohut claims that when a child’s needs are not met, a fragmented self emerges, consisting of the narcissistic self and the grandiose self.

1970s Albert Ellis develops Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy to free people from internalized “musts.”

Social environments—from the family to schools, workplaces, and the ...

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