RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Psychoanalysis

BEFORE

1807 German philosopher Georg Hegel states that consciousness of self depends on the presence of the Other.

1818 German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer claims that there can be no object without a subject to observe it, and that perception of the object is limited by personal vision and experience.

1890 William James in The Principles of Psychology distinguishes between the self as the knower, or “I,” and the self as the known, or “me.”

AFTER

1943 French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre states that our perception of the world around us, or the Other, alters when another person appears; we absorb his or her concept ...

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