RG

IN CONTEXT

APPROACH

Psychoanalysis

BEFORE

1900s Sigmund Freud suggests that neurotic conflicts (and the superego) arise in the Oedipal period—between ages three and six.

1930s Melanie Klein claims that a primitive form of the superego develops during the first year of life, and that love and hate are inherently linked.

AFTER

1947 Psychologist and play therapist Virginia Axline develops her eight principles of play therapy, which include: “Accept the child as she or he is.”

1979 Swiss psychoanalyst Alice Miller says in The Drama of the Gifted Child that we are encouraged to “develop the art of not experiencing feelings.”

Many people believe that if a child ...

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