The linear time invariant (LTI) systems can be represented by the following general difference equation:

The *z*-transform Eq. (12.26) gives

The system function *H*(*z*) is in the rational form which is expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in *z* ^{–1}. It is possible to represent the discrete time system with the help of delay elements, multipliers and adders as elementary blocks. Table 12.3 gives a brief summary of these elements.

**Table 12.3** Summary of elementary blocks used to represent discrete time systems ...

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