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Engineering Physics by S. Mani Naidu

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2.1 Introduction

Matter exists in three different states; they are gaseous, liquid and solid states. In gaseous and liquid states, the atoms or molecules of the substance move from one place to other, and there is no fixed position of atoms in the substance. In solids, the positions of the atoms or molecules are fixed and may or may not be present periodically at regular intervals of distance. If the atoms or molecules in a solid are periodical at regular intervals of distances in three-dimensional space, then that solid is known as crystalline solid. If the atoms or molecules do not have such a periodicity in a solid, then that solid is known as amorphous solid. When the periodicity of atoms or molecules is extended throughout the solid, then ...

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