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Engineering Physics by S. Mani Naidu

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5.7 Band theory of solids

(a) Introduction

According to quantum free electron theory of metals, a conduction electron in a metal experiences constant (or zero) potential and free to move inside the crystal but will not come out of the metal because an infinite potential exists at the surface. This theory successfully explains electrical conductivity, specific heat, thermionic emission and paramagnetism. This theory is fails to explain many other physical properties, for example: (i) it fails to explain the difference between conductors, insulators and semiconductors, (ii) positive Hall coefficient of metals and (iii) lower conductivities of divalent metals than monovalent metals.

To overcome the above problems, the periodic potentials due to ...

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