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Engineering Physics by S. Mani Naidu

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5.9 Origin of energy bands formation in solids

An isolated atom possesses discrete energies of different electrons. Suppose two isolated atoms are brought to very close proximity, then the electrons in the orbits of two atoms interact with each other. So, that in the combined system, the energies of electrons will not be in the same level but changes and the energies will be slightly lower and larger than the original value. So, at the place of each energy level, a closely spaced two energy levels exists. If ‘N’ number of atoms are brought together to form a solid and if these atoms’ electrons interact and give ‘N’ number of closely spaced energy levels in the place of discrete energy levels, it is known as bands of allowed energies. Between ...

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