O

  • Observations, defined, 12

  • One-sided hypotheses, defined, 392393

  • One-way ANOVA, 742743, 813

  • Online retailers, 453. See also Chi-squared

  • Optimal pricing, 543545, 546548, 550

  • Orange juice pricing, 543545

  • Ordinal variables

    • in bar charts, 30

    • defined, 1314

    • median of, 3839

  • Outcome, 158

  • Outliers

    • automated modeling and, 816817

    • in boxplots, 6061

    • defined, 58

    • in histograms, 58

    • leveraged, 607610

    • normality and, 283, 287

    • in regression, 607611

    • in scatterplots, 113

    • variables measured in dollars and, 61

  • Over-fitting, 819

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