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Architecting the Industrial Internet by Carla Romano, Robert Stackowiak, Shyam Nath

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Data warehousing and big data

Relational databases were developed to ensure data integrity, reduce duplication of data and redundant storage, and minimize the disk space requirements for data storage. Most enterprise systems follow Third Normal Form (3NF) design rules to organize the data into schemas. Normalization is the process of organizing data to eliminate redundancy (data is stored in one place), and define logical data dependencies (storing related data items together). 

As relational database-based applications were designed for efficient transaction processing and enforcement of data integrity, performance options such as indices are geared towards supporting high-cardinality queries to retrieve a few specific records or rows. A ...

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