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Making IT Lean by Rebecca Duray, Howard Williams

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v
Contents
Preface .............................................................................................. ix
1 Introduction ................................................................................. 1
Lean .............................................................................................................2
Lean Improvement Model ...........................................................................4
Narrative of the Book .................................................................................6
A Word about our References .............................................................9
References ...................................................................................................9
2 The Work of IT ..........................................................................11
The IT View of IT .....................................................................................11
IT Work as Process-Based Work ..............................................................13
People–Process–Technology ..................................................................... 14
IT as Service-Based Work .........................................................................17
BusinessIT Alignment .............................................................................18
IT Operations ............................................................................................21
Lean IT ......................................................................................................22
Making IT Lean .........................................................................................24
Summary ...................................................................................................26
References .................................................................................................26
3 The OM Perspective ................................................................... 27
Process Types ............................................................................................28
Process Types in IT Work .........................................................................31
Customer Contact Workflow Model .........................................................35
Workflow Concepts ................................................................................... 38
Volume, Variety, and Variation ..........................................................38
Concepts of Flow ..............................................................................41
Waiting in Line ..................................................................................42
Capacity .............................................................................................44
vi ◾  Contents
Looking at the IT Factory .................................................................45
Process Analysis ........................................................................................ 45
Process Improvement ................................................................................51
Quality Improvement ................................................................................ 53
Summary ...................................................................................................55
References .................................................................................................55
4 The Lean Improvement Model ...................................................57
Lean Thinking ...........................................................................................59
Customer Value .................................................................................59
Value Stream Flow .............................................................................60
Elimination of Waste .........................................................................61
Continuous Improvement..................................................................63
Lean Learning ...........................................................................................63
A3 Thinking ......................................................................................64
Plan–DoCheck–Act ..........................................................................66
Lean Problem-Solving ...............................................................................71
Lean Tools .................................................................................................71
Lean Enablers ............................................................................................73
Summary ...................................................................................................74
Appendix: Examples of Waste in IT Work ..............................................74
References .................................................................................................77
5 Lean Problem-Solving: Identifying and Understanding
Problems ....................................................................................79
Identifying Waste ......................................................................................79
Stumbling on Waste from Pain Points ......................................................81
Tool: Process Mapping ......................................................................83
Tool: Swim-Lane Diagram ................................................................. 85
Tool: RACI Chart ...............................................................................86
More on Process Mapping ................................................................87
Root Cause Analysis (RCA) ...............................................................90
Tool: Cause and Effect Diagram .......................................................91
Identifying Waste in Clearly Identified Workflows ..................................95
Tool: Value Stream Map ....................................................................97
Tool: 5 Whys ....................................................................................104
Tool: Pareto Chart............................................................................106
Clarifying Difficult-to-Identify Workflows ..............................................107
Tool: Go-and-See (Gemba) .............................................................109
Surfacing Waste and Exposing Problems ...............................................113
Contents ◾  vii
Tool: Removal of Work-in-Progress (WIP) ...................................... 114
Tool: 5S ............................................................................................ 117
Sort ........................................................................................... 118
Straighten .................................................................................118
Shine ........................................................................................ 118
Standardize ..............................................................................118
Sustain ...................................................................................... 119
Tool: Visual Management ................................................................120
Tool: A3 Reports ..............................................................................121
Summary .................................................................................................121
References ...............................................................................................122
6 Lean Problem-Solving: Identifying and Managing Solutions ..123
Starting with Root Causes ....................................................................... 123
Identifying Solutions ...............................................................................124
Tool: Brainstorming .........................................................................125
Planning, Implementing, and Improving Solutions ...............................128
Tool: PDCA .............................................................................................. 129
Tool: Checklists ...............................................................................130
Tool: Mistake Proofing ....................................................................131
Creating Flow ..........................................................................................132
Tool: Pull (versus Push)...................................................................135
Tool: One-Piece Flow (versus Batch) .............................................. 138
Tool: Rapid Changeover ..................................................................138
Tool: Work Cell Optimization ......................................................... 139
Automation of IT Operations .................................................................140
Improving Nonlinear Processes ..............................................................141
Continuous Improvement .......................................................................141
Kaizen .............................................................................................. 142
Tool: Rapid Improvement Events ....................................................143
Summary .................................................................................................144
References ...............................................................................................144
7 Lean IT Service Management ................................................... 147
IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) ............................................................... 147
Incident Management ............................................................................. 150
Problem Management .............................................................................154
Service Request Fulfillment .................................................................... 155
Service Desk ............................................................................................157
External View of the Service Desk .................................................158
viii ◾  Contents
Internal View of the Service Desk ..................................................160
Lean Service Desk ...........................................................................164
Applying Lean to Other ITSM Processes................................................166
Availability Management .................................................................166
Event Management ..........................................................................166
Change Management ....................................................................... 167
Implementing Lean ITSM ........................................................................168
Summary ................................................................................................. 171
References ...............................................................................................171
8 Implementing and Sustaining Lean IT Improvements ............173
Continuous Improvement ....................................................................... 174
Rapid Improvement Events ............................................................. 175
Lean Enablers .......................................................................................... 178
Dealing with Obstacles ...................................................................182
Tool: 5 Questions ............................................................................186
Lean Culture ............................................................................................ 187
Metrics and Measurement .......................................................................188
Lean IT at Work ......................................................................................191
Lean IT in a Healthcare Company .................................................. 191
Lean IT at a Health Insurance Company .......................................196
Lean IT in a Hospital ......................................................................200
Summary .................................................................................................205
References ...............................................................................................206
9 Looking at Lean IT ..................................................................207
Future Drivers of IT Work ......................................................................207
The Role of Lean ..................................................................................... 208
References ...............................................................................................210

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