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Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B. Wayne Bequette

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M16.1. Background

The focus of this textbook has been on continuous systems although, in practice, most controllers are implemented digitally. Fortunately, the sample time is usually small compared with the process dynamics, so continuous systems theory is usually sufficient.

Processes are best described as continuous systems (with differential equation models), with inputs that are applied continuously and outputs that are available continuously. With digital controllers, however, measurements are made at discrete intervals of time and control moves are made at discrete intervals of time. Discrete-time models were developed in Chapter 4 and the conversion of continuous time to discrete time models (using LTI objects in MATLAB) were presented ...

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