4.3. Integrator + Dead Time
An integrator + dead-time process has the input-output transfer function relationship
and the output response to a step input
with the response shown in Figure 4-5. The gain, k, can be found from the slope by solving
Figure 4-5. Estimating parameters for an integrator + time-delay model from a step input test.
and the time delay is clearly identified by the time required for a change in output. ...