The dynamic models derived in this chapter consist of a set of first-order (only first derivatives with respect to time), nonlinear, explicit, initial-value, ordinary differential equations. A representation of a set of first-order differential equations is
where xi is a state variable, ui is an input variable, and pi is a parameter. The notation is used to represent dxi/dt. Notice that there are nx equations, nx state variables, nu inputs, and np parameters.
Also included in these models is a set of algebraic ...