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Process Control: Modeling, Design, and Simulation by B. Wayne Bequette

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6.3. Tuning Rules for First-Order + Dead Time Processes

The previous tuning rules were based on tests that forced a process into a continuous oscillation. Obvious disadvantages to the techniques are that the system is forced to the edge of instability, and it may take a while to iteratively adjust the controller to obtain a continuous oscillation. In this section we present tuning rules based on process models that have been obtained through the open-loop step tests presented in Chapter 4.

Ziegler-Nichols Open-Loop Method

Ziegler and Nichols also proposed tuning parameters for a process that has been identified as integrator + time-delay based on an open-loop process step response,

Since first-order + time-delay processes have a maximum slope ...

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