This Section is the bleakest in the book. If you are the worrying type, don’t read it before you go to bed – it has the potential to be worse than eating cheese for nightmares. It deals with issues that none of us want to think about. Namely unexpected/unforeseeable events that could destroy the organisation.

It starts by looking at those old planning favourites the SWOT and PEST analyses (see Models 52 and 53). People often get confused as to the true difference between the two models. I suggest that the real difference between these two exercises isn’t that SWOT deals with internal issues and PEST with external matters, as many books imply. But that SWOT deals with issues that only affect ...

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