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Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition by Jason McIntosh, Chuck Toporek, Chris Stone

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Expressions

Expressions are used in @, if, and while statements to perform arithmetic, string comparisons, file testing, and so on. exit and set also specify expressions, as can the tcsh built-in command filetest. Expressions are formed by combining variables and constants with operators that resemble those in the C programming language. Operator precedence is the same as in C and can be remembered as follows:

  1. * / %

  2. + -

Group all other expressions inside parentheses. Parentheses are required if the expression contains <, >, &, or |.

Operators

Operators can be one of the following types.

Assignment operators

Operator

Description

=

Assign value.

+= -=

Reassign after addition/subtraction.

*= /= %=

Reassign after multiplication/division/remainder.

&= ^= |=

Reassign after bitwise AND/XOR/OR.

++

Increment.

--

Decrement.

Arithmetic operators

Operator

Description

* / %

Multiplication; integer division; modulus (remainder).

+ -

Addition; subtraction.

Bitwise and logical operators

Operator

Description

~

Binary inversion (one’s complement).

!

Logical negation.

<< >>

Bitwise left shift; bitwise right shift.

&

Bitwise AND.

^

Bitwise exclusive OR.

|

Bitwise OR.

&&

Logical AND.

||

Logical OR.

{ command }

Return 1 if command is successful, 0 otherwise. Note that this is the opposite of command’s normal return code. The $status variable may be more practical.

Comparison operators

Operator

Description

= = !=

Equality; ...

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