People have different orientations toward the process of negotiation: Some people are individualists, seeking only their own gain; others are cooperative, seeking to maximize joint interests; and others are competitive, seeking to maximize differences. (For a complete list of possibilities, see Fig. 5-1.) Figure 5-1 depicts eight distinct motivational orientations, ranging from altruism (high concern for others' interests) to aggression (desire to harm the other party) to masochism (desire to harm one's self) and individualism (desire to further one's own interests). Cooperation represents a midpoint between altruism and cooperation; martyrdom represents a midpoint between altruism and masochism; sadomasochism represents a midpoint ...

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