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RG

IN CONTEXT

FOCUS

Middle management

KEY DATES

Pre-1850 The business landscape is dominated by small, family-run firms.

1850s and 60s A rapid expansion of the railroad systems and new industrial technology in Europe and America create greater possibilities for entrepreneurial businesses.

From 1880s As family businesses grow ever larger, administration becomes important and they begin to employ professional managers.

1982 UK economist Norman Macrae predicts a future trend of “intrapreneurs”: managers with entrepreneurial thinking.

People are important in organizational life. Whether it is the initiative of a single entrepreneur or the combined energy of thousands ...

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