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RG

IN CONTEXT

FOCUS

Business change

KEY DATES

1979 Michael Porter writes How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy, saying that managers must always be aware of what the competition is doing.

1994 In The Empty Raincoat: Making Sense of the Future, Charles Handy uses a graph to illustrate how organizations have to be alert and respond to threats.

1996 Andy Grove writes Only the Paranoid Survive.

2010 In The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Nassim Nicholas Taleb explains that we cannot predict the future from the past, so must expect (and prepare for) the unexpected.

It is often easier for people outside a company to spot complacency than it is ...

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