Research and development


1790s In postrevolutionary France the government works with scientist Claude Chappe to develop a nationwide semaphore system.

1806 Isambard Kingdom Brunel is born. The British scientist and engineer goes on to design and build the first propeller-powered ship and the first tunnel under a river.

1939–45 During World War II, jet engines, the mass-production of medicines such as penicillin, and blood transfusions are all developed.

1942 Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter uses the term “creative destruction” to describe how innovation in industry creates new societies by destroying old ones.

Research and ...

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