ANDRAGOGY: MALCOLM KNOWLES
Malcolm Knowles’s andragogy has stood as a core concept in adult learning for over thirty years. In his book The Adult Learner, Knowles defined andragogy as “the process of adults gaining knowledge and expertise” (Knowles et al., 2005, p. 174). He saw andragogy as sharply differentiated from pedagogy, which relates to children.
According to Knowles et al. (2005), six assumptions characterize adult learning:
1. Adults learn best if they know why they need to learn. Learning must be relevant and goal oriented.
2. Because adults have a formed self-concept, they prefer to be self-directing and to feel in control of their learning.
3. Adults’ own life experiences are a rich resource for learning.
4. Adults generally ...