Understanding fiber optic cables and their types

As we mentioned previously, both coaxial and twisted pair cables use a copper wire to transmit a signal in the form of voltage. In contrast, fiber optic cables use a signal made up of light. The light is generated by either an LED or a laser. Fiber optic networks provide high speed, long-distance connectivity that is resistant to EMI.

A fiber optic cable consists of either a single glass strand or multiple glass strands surrounded by an outer jacket, as shown in the following diagram. Each glass strand comprises a hollow central core that the light travels down and a glass cladding layer that prevents the light from escaping by reflecting it back into the core:

Figure 8.16: Fiber optic cable: ...

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