Implications for Managers

  • Specialization can make operations more efficient, but remember that excessive specialization can create dissatisfaction and reduced motivation.

  • Avoid designing rigid hierarchies that overly limit employees’ empowerment and autonomy.

  • Balance the advantages of remote work against the potential pitfalls ­before adding flexible workplace options into the organization’s structure.

  • Downsize your organization to realize major cost savings, and focus the company around core competencies—but only if necessary, because downsizing can have a significant negative impact on employee affect.

  • Consider the scarcity, dynamism, and complexity of the environment, and balance organic and mechanistic elements when designing an organizational ...

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