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Small Group Facilitation: Improving Process and Performance in Groups and Teams by Judith A. Kolb

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Task and Relationship Aspects of Groups

The dual needs of small groups were first recognized by Bales (1950) and Benne and Sheats (1948). These and other early scholars were consistent in the use of the “task” label; labels for the second dual need included socioemotional, maintenance, and relationship. The latter is the most commonly used term today. Schein (1979; 1987) applied this early work to process consultation. He described task or content as the work to be done by the group. Task process focuses on ways of getting the job done. This includes such things as setting an agenda, the use of decision-making and/or problem-solving techniques, and time management. Maintenance process is described as ways of getting the group’s psychosocial needs ...

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