Tuckman and Jensen (1977) identified five stages of development that describe typical process for many groups:
• Forming: Initial stage; orientation; getting to know each other
• Storming: Disagreement among members; conflict; dissatisfaction
• Norming: Cohesiveness; development of group structure; establishment of norms, roles, and relationships
• Performing: Focus on actual task; getting the job done
• Adjourning: Final stage; task is finished; saying goodbye
Because these stages are easy to remember, they are commonly cited and serve to give an overall understanding of how groups progress toward a goal. We should not expect all groups to go through these stages in this order or to spend the same length of ...