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Small Group Facilitation: Improving Process and Performance in Groups and Teams by Judith A. Kolb

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Patterns of Performance

Tuckman and Jensen (1977) identified five stages of development that describe typical process for many groups:

•   Forming: Initial stage; orientation; getting to know each other

•   Storming: Disagreement among members; conflict; dissatisfaction

•   Norming: Cohesiveness; development of group structure; establishment of norms, roles, and relationships

•   Performing: Focus on actual task; getting the job done

•   Adjourning: Final stage; task is finished; saying goodbye

Because these stages are easy to remember, they are commonly cited and serve to give an overall understanding of how groups progress toward a goal. We should not expect all groups to go through these stages in this order or to spend the same length of ...

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