A critical piece of the Open Cable initiative above is the Open Cable Application Platform (OCAP). OCAP will set a standard for middleware. Middleware on set-top boxes enables applications from many different companies to work with set-top hardware from a variety of manufacturers such as Motorola, Sony, Philips, Nokia, and Scientific Atlanta. The middleware translates between the hardware and network protocols and applications. Applications include electronic commerce, online chating, digital radio and interactive television program guides. Companies that develop and sell middleware include Canal +, Liberte Technologies, Microsoft, Open TV, and Sun Microsystems.