There are many types of microphones available. Each has certain advantages and disadvantages. The choice of a microphone depends upon the type of material to be reproduced, the placement of the microphone, whether it is to be used indoors or outdoors, the frequency response desired, and a number of other factors.
The basic types of microphones, grouped according to their principle of operation are : carbon, crystal, dynamic, ribbon and capacitor.
Each of these has its own characteristics with respect to : (1) output level, (2) frequency response, (3) output impedance and (4) directivity. These characteristics ultimately determine the particular type of microphone suitable for a given application.