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The Pocket Universal Methods of Design by Bella Martin, Bruce Hanington

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038 Experiments

Measuring the effect that an action has on a situation, demonstrating a causal relationship

• Cause and effect criteria are met by the cause occurring before the effect of two observable and measurable actions or events and elimination of all other possible causes.

• Through random assignment, experimental group participants are exposed to manipulations of an independent variable, while the control group is not.

• All other conditions are held exactly the same for both groups to rule out the influence of extraneous variables.

• The dependent variable is measured to see if there is a significant difference for those exposed to the manipulation.

• An operational definition defines exactly how the dependent variable is being measured: ...

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