Unobtrusive observation of people or behaviors, without direct participation or interference
• This method attempts to minimize potential bias or behavioral influences that might result from engagement with users.
• It is appropriate when observing public behaviors or work processes that may be unduly influenced if interrupted or inconvenienced.
• It may reduce the researcher’s ability to connect empathically with people and probe further into motivations behind participant behaviors.
• It is generally conducted flexibly, although worksheets or other guiding frameworks may usefully inform observations.
• Secret outsiders are distant observers, with a vantage point that removes them from participants to minimize ...