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The Pocket Universal Methods of Design by Bella Martin, Bruce Hanington

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092 Unobtrusive Measures

Physical evidence, archival records, and nonintrusive observations used for design insight

• This method is used to acquire information without direct participant contact.

• Examples of physical trace erosion measures include wear patterns in floors or grass indicating preferred pedestrian traffic.

• Examples of accretion measures include litter, graffiti, temporary signage, product modifications, or fingerprints to indicate patterns of use.

• Archives are considered unobtrusive measures because they may be accessed without direct contact with participants.

• Observation can be an unobtrusive measure when those being observed do not know it and the researcher has had no input in the situation structure.

• Digital footprints ...

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