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The Pocket Universal Methods of Design by Bella Martin, Bruce Hanington

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052 Laddering

An interviewing technique that reveals connections between a product’s characteristics and personal values

• It builds on Means–End Theory, which posits that people make purchasing decisions based on consequences afforded by using the product.

• Connects a product’s obvious physical characteristics to values by repeatedly asking “Why” questions.

• As the conversation builds on itself to reveal what a person values, the “ladder” is constructed that connects product attributes to the consequences and to the individual’s values.

• Consequences are the benefit or the impact that the product has on a person and reveal another layer about what is important.

• Values expose the root cause behind why a product resonates profoundly with ...

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