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The Pocket Universal Methods of Design by Bella Martin, Bruce Hanington

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060 Participatory Action Research (PAR)

A cyclical, collaborative process that seeks to intentionally change members of the inquiry

• The mission is to change the community, or policies under study, differentiated from objective methods that seek only to describe, understand, and explain.

• With an overtone of empowerment, emancipation, and activism, the approach has been popular in education, feminist research, and social justice.

• The process is dynamic and cyclical in its sequence of planning, taking action, observing, evaluating, and critical reflection.

• Specific research methods tend to be flexible, qualitative, and ethnographic, including traditional observations, participant observation, and interviews.

• New movements in social design ...

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