CHARACTERISTICS OF LARGE-SYSTEM INTERVENTIONS
Large-system interventions have a number of common features that distinguish them from other OD interventions. These characteristics are as follows:
• They are triggered by environmental jolts and internal disruptions;
• They provoke revolutionary or transformational change;
• They incorporate new organizing paradigms;
• They are driven and led by senior executives;
• They require an organizational learning system; and
• They involve multiple organization levels and large numbers of members.
Environmental jolts and internal disruptions can be compelling reasons for large-system change. Such interventions generally occur in direct response to at least three kinds of disturbance (Tushman, Newman, ...