Activities inside CAS can be characterized in one of three ways: organized, self-organizing, and unorganized. At any given time, each of those descriptors is appropriate to different activities throughout the organization. All three are important and necessary in every organization. Most traditional management theories emerged from a mechanistic perspective in which control is an important goal. Developmental theories assume a constant, identical, and predictable process of change for every organization. Even the process of developing mission, vision, and values statements is designed to create manageable control in the organization. In a system that is constantly adapting to changes in its environment, this level of ...

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