These errors occur when evaluation methods have been tainted by inaccuracies, miscalculations, or faulty assumptions.

Error of the Instrument

Evaluators often use instruments—electronic and mechanical, as well as paper- or computer-delivered tests and exercises. Keep in mind that all instruments are subject to failure, loss of calibration, or incorrect use. Some electronic instruments require setup procedures that are complicated and must include warm-up time. Hooking up attachments may require particular care and correct placement. Written instructions may be confusing. Tests may be unreliable or invalid. Language use may differ by group, so that a test using complex medical language will work differently if it is given to ...

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